Transcript of YouTube Video: The Insane Engineering of the F-117 Nighthawk

Transcript of YouTube Video: The Insane Engineering of the F-117 Nighthawk

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00:00

two f-117's are approaching their target

00:03

Over Baghdad below the cloud cover radar

00:06

guided surfac to- aair missiles scan the

00:08

sky for signs of an imminent threat but

00:11

see little more than a small blip that

00:13

Fades into the background of noise the

00:16

payload bay doors open revealing two

00:18

gpsg guided missiles destined for the

00:21

assumed location of the then Iraq

00:23

president Saddam Hussein this simple act

00:26

May well have revealed the stealthy

00:28

aircraft to radar below its exterior was

00:31

molded by precise mathematical equations

00:34

every facet designed to disperse and

00:36

absorb the electromagnetic energy

00:38

surrounding the skies around them with

00:41

the missiles delivered and their

00:42

location potentially given away the

00:45

defenseless planes quickly turned to

00:47

escape enemy

00:49

airspace this was a highly specialized

00:52

aircraft designed to carry just two

00:54

missiles in its payload Bay a plane that

00:57

looked like a fighter jet but if it met

01:00

enemy Fighters the subsonic plane armed

01:02

with bombs meant for ground targets

01:04

stood little chance it relied entirely

01:07

on stealth to Get Behind Enemy Lines and

01:10

strike without being seen something it

01:13

did time after time during the Gulf War

01:17

striking

01:18

1,600 high value targets without losing

01:21

a single

01:23

aircraft the design began as a simple

01:25

Diamond that aerodynamicists of Lockheed

01:28

skunkworks dubbed the hopeless Diamond a

01:31

template for stealth a shape that the

01:33

famous former skunkworks leader Kelly

01:36

Johnson doubted would ever be able to

01:39

fly turning this concept into a

01:41

functional aircraft would take the very

01:44

best aerodynamicists propulsion

01:46

Engineers Structural Engineers and radar

01:49

Specialists that Skunk Works had to

01:51

offer they carefully chipped away at the

01:53

simple but revolutionary shape to form a

01:57

masterpiece this is the in engineering

02:00

of the f117

02:04

Nighthawk the f-17 nigh Hawk's Journey

02:08

began here on the desk of Ben Rich the

02:11

newly appointed director of Skunk Works

02:13

taking over from the eminent Kelly

02:15

Johnson this paper a Russian scientific

02:18

paper translated by the Air Force's

02:20

foreign technology division held the key

02:23

to a new generation of aircraft war is

02:26

an Ever evolving game of cat and mouse

02:28

and in the past decade aircraft had

02:30

switched roles from Predator to prey the

02:33

development of Soviet radar guided

02:35

missiles caught the US industrial

02:37

machine by surprise a sudden realization

02:40

during the Yong kapor War of

02:43

1973 Israeli Pilots armed with the

02:46

latest and greatest American attack

02:48

aircraft lost 109 planes over just 18

02:52

days these planes were mostly shot down

02:55

by Soviet supplied surfac to- a missiles

02:58

supplied to the Egyptian and Syrian

03:00

armies these Crews required a fraction

03:03

of the training that was required to

03:06

train a fighter pilot and the systems

03:08

themselves were vastly cheaper the

03:11

Russians had invested billions into the

03:13

development of radar guided surface to a

03:15

missiles like the

03:17

sa5 these missiles could reach

03:20

125,000 ft in altitude and could even be

03:23

armed with nuclear warheads to blast wbe

03:26

Raiders out of the sky the extreme

03:29

altitude would mean Russians on the

03:31

ground would be shielded from the Heat

03:33

and shock waves and the Strong Winds of

03:35

the upper atmosphere would carry the

03:37

Fallout to Western Europe the

03:39

effectiveness of these missiles was not

03:41

down to speculation the balance of the

03:44

battlefield had shifted towards the

03:46

Soviets Air Force planners extrapolated

03:49

these attrition rates out to a full war

03:51

with the Soviets in Eastern Europe and

03:53

they saw the writing on the wall the

03:55

Soviets would wipe out the entire US Air

03:58

Force in just 17 days two strategies to

04:02

counter this advancement emerged

04:04

conventional wisdom of the time pointed

04:06

towards designing a plane specifically

04:09

designed to hug the terrain to be able

04:11

to fly longrange Missions at extremely

04:14

low altitude hiding from radar in the

04:16

ground clutter this resulted in the B1

04:19

Lancer its variable sweep Wing allowed

04:22

it to tailor its aerodynamics for both

04:24

low speed low altitude flight and

04:26

highspeed high altitude flight however

04:29

that was system would soon be challenged

04:31

thanks to one brilliant scientist Dennis

04:34

overhauser who on one fateful day placed

04:37

this paper on the desk of Ben Rich a

04:39

long technical document full of

04:42

complicated equations and theories but

04:44

for Dennis skunkworks radar Dome expert

04:47

it held a treasure the key to unlocking

04:50

a new way of Designing aircraft a method

04:53

to calculate the defraction of

04:55

electromagnetic waves stealth design was

04:58

not a new concept the sr-71's first

05:02

flight predates the first day of

05:04

development of the F-117 by over 10

05:07

years and it Incorporated some early

05:10

concepts for stealth that were largely

05:12

based around the laws of physical Optics

05:14

reflection and refraction avoiding

05:17

Corner reflectors was a known method to

05:19

reduce radar signature long before the

05:22

F-117 was theorized what this paper

05:25

unlocked was much more complicated once

05:28

thought to be too complicated to solve

05:30

defraction imagine waves approaching a

05:33

harbor Breakwater it's designed to

05:35

Shield the boats inside from the energy

05:38

of the sea with just the laws of

05:40

reflection the boats should be

05:42

completely unaware of the presence of

05:44

waves outside these walls and yet

05:46

through defraction the waves find their

05:49

way inside this is a messy chaotic

05:52

problem with too many variables to

05:53

consider for simple analysis and it only

05:56

gets more complicated with

05:58

electromagnetic waves but this paper

06:00

unbeknownst to the Soviets who allowed

06:03

it to be published internationally held

06:05

the key to the technology that would

06:07

allow aircraft to become the top

06:09

predator once again Ben Rich the newly

06:12

appointed leader of skunkworks under

06:14

pressure to take the Reigns from Kelly

06:15

Johnson approved a computer program to

06:18

be developed and within 3 months a

06:20

working program that allowed simple

06:22

shapes to be analyzed was created dubbed

06:25

echo1 allowing them to theorize the

06:28

Hopeless diamond this was of course not

06:31

a plane it lacked everything a plane

06:34

needs to fly it had no control surfaces

06:36

no propulsion no payload it even lacked

06:39

a wing Dennis was not an aerodynamicist

06:43

he was skunk's Raad home specialist

06:45

designing the nose cones that housed

06:47

their planes radar this design was a

06:49

template that could be molded by the

06:51

most skilled sculptors in aviation step

06:54

one was to figure out its Mission

06:56

profile this would decide several things

06:59

Max payload range and propulsion with

07:02

stealth a priority the F-117 could not

07:04

have external hard points this was going

07:07

to limit its weapons capacity it would

07:09

feature two internal weapon spays and

07:12

the plane would be a Precision bomber

07:14

its weapon of choice were laser guided

07:16

missiles inside the nose of the aircraft

07:19

hid a steerable turret containing a dual

07:22

field of view infrared sensor while a

07:25

second infrared sensor was located to

07:27

the right of the nose wheel well and

07:29

both sensors came with a laser which

07:31

could be aimed at the Target to guide

07:33

the missile with extreme Precision the

07:35

sensors locked onto and track targets

07:38

with help from the internal navigation

07:40

system switching from the

07:41

forward-looking to the downward looking

07:43

systems as it passed over the target

07:45

these systems were of course heavily

07:47

weather dependent as the plane could not

07:49

guide the missile through cloud cover

07:51

but GPS guided missiles were also an

07:54

option these were the only weapons on

07:56

board the plane would be completely

07:58

defenseless to aial threats and would

08:00

thus rely completely on stealth and

08:03

because of this the F-117 was going to

08:06

be a subsonic plane producing a sonic

08:09

boom was a good way to be detected not

08:11

by radar but just any person in the

08:14

general vicinity higher speeds also

08:17

results in increased aerodynamic heating

08:19

that could allow the plane to be

08:20

targeted by infrared guided systems so

08:23

the engines didn't need afterburners or

08:26

specialized engine inlets to slow down

08:28

supersonic air flow this simplified

08:31

engine selection and the General

08:32

Electric j85 was selected for the half

08:35

blue demonstrator which would later be

08:37

upgraded to the General Electric f404

08:40

from The fa18 Hornet an affordable

08:43

reliable and maintainable engine next

08:46

the engine air Inlet needed to take

08:48

shape here things get particularly

08:50

unique to the F-117 radar bouncing

08:53

around inside an engine Inlet is like a

08:56

person shouting into a massive cave the

08:58

engine Inlet would need to take the same

09:01

facet angles as the rest of the plane

09:03

and so the engine Inlet was covered with

09:05

a radar reflecting grid the grid had

09:08

spacing of just 1.5 CM this spacing was

09:11

key to preventing the transmission of

09:13

radar the passage of any wavelength

09:16

larger than the gaps in the mesh would

09:18

be impeded some wavelengths will still

09:20

get through but the inside of the inlet

09:22

was also lined with radar absorbing

09:24

material or Ram which covered the entire

09:27

surface of the aircraft we don't

09:29

typically see covers on engine inlets

09:31

for several incredibly important reasons

09:34

number one it reduces pressure recovery

09:37

pressure recovery is the ratio of the

09:39

average total pressure at the exit of

09:41

the inlet to the total average pressure

09:43

in the freest stream air the absolute

09:46

maximum value is one where no pressure

09:48

is lost and therefore no energy is lost

09:52

this is a way to assess the performance

09:53

of the engine Inlet having a mesh

09:56

blocking a large portion of the inlet

09:58

drastically reduces es the pressure

10:00

recovery and reduces the thrust the

10:02

engine can produce as a result secondary

10:05

intake doors located here could open at

10:07

lower power settings to increase airf

10:10

flow but opening these up during flight

10:12

was not an option they were controlled

10:14

automatically programmed to open when

10:17

the plane speed was below Mach 0.5 and

10:20

the doors closed gradually as the plane

10:22

accelerated this was also how the crew

10:24

accessed the engine to maintain it since

10:27

the front intake was completely covered

10:29

this grid created another much larger

10:31

problem during flight ice can build up

10:34

on the aircraft smaller devices like the

10:37

airspeed pedot tubes have heating

10:38

elements and water drains inside them to

10:41

prevent this critical sensor from being

10:43

blocked to prevent this from happening

10:45

to the inlet grid the plane came with

10:47

inflight anti-icing equipment with what

10:50

was essentially a windscreen wiper a

10:52

wiper would emerge from the lip below

10:54

the inlet and spray a glycol-based

10:56

anti-icing mixture next the engine

10:59

Outlet had to be molded into shape and

11:02

once again the f-17 has an incredibly

11:04

unique design the engineers wanted to

11:07

minimize the heat signature of the plane

11:09

as well as the radar signature to do

11:12

this they needed to cool the exhaust and

11:14

distribute it over a wider area so it

11:17

could mix with ambient temperature air

11:19

quicker the exhaust Outlet transitioned

11:22

from a round duct at the turbine exhaust

11:24

to a flat 17 to1 rectangular-shaped duct

11:28

the duct was also divided it

11:29

horizontally into smaller ducted

11:31

channels below the exhaust the fuselage

11:34

extended out with a slight upwards angle

11:36

into what was dubbed the Platypus tail

11:39

this shape spreads the heat from the

11:41

exhaust over a larger area allowing it

11:43

to mix with ambient air and cool down

11:45

faster the extension was also covered in

11:48

heat absorbing ceramic tiles that were

11:50

cooled continually by bypass air coming

11:52

from around the engines this exhaust

11:55

setup did however cause some instability

11:57

issues that were only discovered Ed

11:59

during the half blue demonstration test

12:01

flights the thrust of these engine

12:03

nozzles were angled inwards towards the

12:05

center line of the aircraft however the

12:08

angle of this trust Vector was often not

12:10

symmetric the thrust angle between each

12:13

exhaust could differ by as much as 8° in

12:16

some flight conditions resulting in

12:18

differential thrust that could push the

12:20

plane sideways the angle was affected by

12:22

engine power angle of attack speed but

12:25

in particular Sid slip Sid slip is when

12:28

the relative wind striking the plane

12:30

does not match the direction of travel

12:32

which can often happen on takeoff and

12:34

landings with a sidewind this became a

12:36

problem for the half blue test flights

12:38

because the flight computer was using a

12:40

lateral accelerometer to measure Sid

12:43

slip but this asymmetric thrust was

12:45

pushing the plane sideways causing the

12:48

accelerometer to detect side slip the

12:50

flight computer then tried to correct

12:52

four Sid slip which did not actually

12:55

exist and created actual Sid slip which

12:58

increased the asymmetric thrust which

13:00

increased the false Sid slip signal a

13:03

positive feedback loop of instability

13:05

this problem was fixed by taking actual

13:08

Sid slip measurements using a beta vein

13:10

beta is just the Aeronautical

13:12

Engineering term for Sid slip with the

13:15

engine selected and payload capacity

13:17

determined the wings needed to be sized

13:19

and designed an aerodynamicist has a lot

13:22

of things to consider when designing a

13:24

wing The Sweep angle the AO foil design

13:27

the dihedral angle and the wing area

13:30

usually these decisions are made based

13:32

on the plane's main responsibilities an

13:34

airliner selects a wing that operates

13:36

most efficiently at its expected Cruise

13:39

altitude and speed a fighter plane like

13:41

the F-16 will be designed to maximize

13:43

maneuverability and high angle of attack

13:46

lift however the F-117 Engineers had

13:49

their hands tied with many of the

13:51

choices they could typically make the

13:53

sweep angle which describes the

13:55

backwards angling of wings was largely

13:57

out of their control sweep angle is

14:00

usually determined by the speed of the

14:01

aircraft slower civilian aircraft like

14:04

Cessnas have no need for sweep as they

14:06

don't travel even remotely close to

14:08

supersonic speeds an airliner Wing is

14:11

angled backwards to increase critical

14:13

mock number this is the speed at which

14:15

supersonic flow begins to appear over

14:18

the wings angling the wings backwards

14:20

allows airliners to fly faster before

14:23

this becomes an issue the 787 has a

14:25

sweep angle of

14:27

32° supersonic planes like jet fighters

14:30

have their sweep angle determined by

14:31

speed too but this time it's to avoid

14:34

the oblique shock waves emanating from

14:36

the nose and body of the plane from

14:38

intersecting with their wings which

14:40

would cause a large amount of drag and

14:42

loss of lift an F-16 has a sweep angle

14:44

of 40° even the fastest planes like the

14:48

SR71 had a sweep angle of just

14:51

53° the half blue demonstrator aircraft

14:54

had a sweep angle of 72.5 De and the f17

14:59

was going to be a subsonic plane flying

15:01

at similar speeds to an airliner a sweep

15:04

of 32° or so would have sufficed this

15:07

extreme sweep angle was being driven by

15:09

its stealth requirements determined by

15:12

the echo1 program and this came with

15:14

Troublesome consequences a swept Wing

15:17

produces less lift than an equivalent on

15:19

swept Wing this was made even worse by

15:22

the rigid design requirements of stealth

15:24

on the AER foil itself the air foil of

15:27

the F-117 was composed OS of simple flat

15:30

faceted shapes two three on top and two

15:32

on the bottom if we map the pressure

15:34

distribution of a regular air foil it

15:37

may look something like this while the

15:39

faceted shape looks like this with Peaks

15:41

occurring at the facet lines this

15:43

resulted in low lift to drag ratios and

15:46

caused issues with aerodynamic flutter

15:49

where the wing would vibrate and damage

15:50

itself with the reduced lift caused by

15:53

the sweep angle in addition to these

15:55

suboptimal aerrow foils the wings had to

15:57

be quite large to produce enough lift

16:00

the designers increased the wing area

16:02

with extensions here this increased the

16:05

f-117's wing area to 72 M squared a

16:09

massive area for such a light plane the

16:11

f-17 had a Max takeoff weight of

16:15

23,800 kg compare that to an F15 the

16:19

F-15 was designed with a low-wing

16:21

loading in mind meaning a low ratio of

16:24

weight to Wing area and yet the F-15 had

16:27

a smaller Wing area area and a higher

16:29

Max takeoff weight than the

16:31

F-117 the F-15 could simply produce more

16:35

lift with less Wing area designing a

16:38

plane around these flat faceted sheets

16:40

was a huge challenge not just in lift

16:43

but in stability too the massive 72.5 de

16:47

sweep in the have blue demonstrator

16:49

caused a pitch instability if the plane

16:51

pitched to an angle of attack greater

16:53

than 17° the plane would not be able to

16:56

pitch down again as the elevant also

16:58

lost control Authority as the angle of

17:01

attack increased a concerning pitch

17:03

instability that required the flight

17:05

control computer to intervene on the

17:07

Pilot's behalf with a specialized

17:09

control surface the have blue turned the

17:12

Platypus tail extension into a flight

17:14

control surface it automatically

17:16

deflected downwards when an angle of

17:18

attack of 13° was exceeded but this too

17:21

brought with it some unforeseen issues

17:23

which ended the test flight career of

17:25

Bill Parks when the control surface

17:28

automatically deployed just 1 M Off The

17:30

Runway and slammed the aircraft into the

17:33

ground bending the landing gear and

17:35

forcing the pilot to eject this platypus

17:38

tail was removed for the final f117

17:40

design the F-117 was different from have

17:44

blue in several ways besides being much

17:46

larger the inward CED all movable fins

17:49

of the hav blue was switched to a vtail

17:52

and the fins themselves were enlarged to

17:54

increase Control Authority these inward

17:57

CED fins matched the the 30° Contours of

18:00

the fuselage they served as both the

18:02

rudder and elevators a ruter Vader

18:05

inward fins like those of the SR71 and

18:08

outward candid fins like those of the

18:10

F35 work in the same way and we can see

18:13

how by examining the resultant Force

18:15

generated when the control surfaces are

18:17

actuated to different positions we can

18:20

actuate them in opposite directions to

18:22

generate a horizontal resultant Force

18:25

providing yaw control as a vertical

18:27

Rudder W or we can deflect them in the

18:29

same direction to provide pitch control

18:32

as the horizontal elevator would however

18:34

the inward caned fins of the half blue

18:36

were being shielded from Air Flow by the

18:38

fuselage during high angle of attack

18:40

Maneuvers reducing their power to

18:43

control the plane as they were receiving

18:45

less air to create lift the larger

18:48

outward CED fins of the F-117 helped

18:50

increase the Control Authority the

18:53

Platypus tail was removed but the f-17

18:56

gained a second outboard elevant where

18:58

the have blue had just one elevant on

19:00

each Wing these huge full span elevons

19:03

were sized to provide more control in

19:05

Pitch the 72.5 de Wing sweep was also

19:09

reduced to 67.5 de while still an

19:13

extremely high Wing sweep for a subsonic

19:15

plane this 5 degree decrease helped

19:17

increase the lift of the wing and reduce

19:20

the pitch instabilities the half blue

19:21

demonstrator experienced with two large

19:24

elevant the f-117's Vil no longer had to

19:27

control both pitch and and yaw it was

19:29

dedicated to just yaw control having a

19:32

control surface like this performing

19:34

double duty can cause issues if the

19:37

plane needs to control both pitch and

19:39

yaw at the same time the flight computer

19:41

has to figure out how to manage the

19:43

competing control inputs into a single

19:45

controlled surface it's far from ideal

19:48

it also increases redundancy in the

19:50

event of a failure a much better design

19:53

than the half blue demonstrator both of

19:55

which were destroyed in crashes with the

19:58

extremely poor lift to drag ratio of the

20:00

f117 its maximum takeoff weight was

20:03

limited fuel tanks were located above

20:05

and behind the main weapons Bay with

20:07

additional storage in the wings for a

20:09

total fuel capacity of 8.2 metric tons

20:12

of jp8 fuel giving the plane a range of

20:16

1,720 KM to reach enemy territory the

20:20

plane needed frequent aerial refueling

20:22

the original trip from Langley Air Force

20:25

Base to Saudi Arabia for Operation

20:27

Desert Storm took 15 hours and required

20:30

seven refuelings along the way

20:32

air-to-air refueling receptacles were

20:34

mounted in the upper fuselage and

20:36

rotated into position with the plane's

20:39

poor low-speed flight characteristics it

20:41

stood a little chance of taking off and

20:43

landing on aircraft carriers Loy did in

20:46

fact propose a carrier version of the

20:48

Nighthawk the F-117 n which added a tail

20:51

hook lowered the wing sweep added an

20:54

allm moving horizontal stabilizer

20:56

increased power with a larger after

20:58

burning engine Eng and increased payload

21:00

capacity with more hard points The

21:02

Proposal was rejected however the F-117

21:06

was a moment of inspired Brilliance that

21:08

the United States Air Force ultimately

21:10

knew would have a limited shelf life

21:13

they kept it under wraps for as long as

21:15

possible to maintain its Advantage but

21:18

once its adversaries knew of its

21:19

existence counter strategies began to be

21:22

developed taking the simple template of

21:24

stealth and trying to adapt it for the

21:26

next generation of multi-roll Fighters

21:28

was never going to work the worst of

21:30

Both Worlds ultimately an entirely new

21:34

generation of aircraft were needed

21:36

during Desert Storm the Air Force based

21:38

36 f-117's in Saudi Arabia and they only

21:42

needed refueling tankers as support

21:45

these planes operated over heavily

21:47

contested airspace with impunity on the

21:50

first night of their deployment they

21:52

struck 26 high value targets many of

21:55

which included the country's surfac to-

21:57

a missile defense systems the f-117's

22:00

were so effective that the Iraqi air

22:02

defense system was powerless to stop

22:05

them what was once a Soviet trump card

22:07

was rendered useless not a single F-117

22:11

was lost this infographic was produced

22:14

by the Air Force after Desert Storm to

22:17

illustrate the value of this new

22:18

technology estimating the 20-year cost

22:21

of procurement and operation of this

22:23

precision and stealth Doctrine at $1.5

22:27

billion the stand standard package of

22:29

aircraft needed before stealth was

22:31

developed was much more costly requiring

22:33

specialized bombers fighter escorts to

22:36

protect them electronic jamming aircraft

22:38

to suppress air defenses and a much

22:40

larger Fleet of refueling tankers to

22:43

support all of them costing $6.5

22:46

billion however the Air Force was well

22:49

aware this golden period of stealth was

22:51

going to be shortlived with its

22:53

existence known it was only a matter of

22:56

time until the enemy developed strategy

22:58

and Technologies to counter stealth a

23:01

large part of the f-117's mission

23:03

planning revolved around knowing the

23:05

positions and types of radar systems in

23:07

enemy airspace and planning a route

23:10

through them that kept the plane out of

23:12

range the first and only f117 was shot

23:15

down over Serbia in 1999 here a tactic

23:19

was used that involved moving radar and

23:21

missile launchers regularly and only

23:24

turning them on for a short period of

23:26

time so their positions could not be

23:27

tracked making it impossible to plan a

23:30

route around them this tactic allowed

23:33

them to successfully lock onto the F-117

23:35

and destroy it the pilot was rescued but

23:38

the military made no attempt to destroy

23:40

the plane wreckage at this point the

23:43

F-22 had already made its first flight

23:46

developed with the very latest in

23:47

stealth technology while being a true

23:49

fighter aircraft capable of Defending

23:52

itself and incorporating even more

23:54

advanced technology that the public are

23:56

likely still not aware of today the F-35

24:00

employs an entirely new doctrine of

24:02

interconnected Battlefield information a

24:04

hive mind of stealth aircraft swapping

24:07

information between each other the F-117

24:10

was the first true stealth aircraft but

24:13

as stealth technology has advanced

24:15

stealth is not something expected as a

24:17

specialization but is expected as

24:19

standard with modern technology targets

24:22

can be hit from mindboggling ranges the

24:24

key to survival is to strike before you

24:27

are seen the B2 Spirit was the next

24:30

wrong on this evolutionary ladder and it

24:32

was one of the most sophisticated and

24:33

expensive planes ever produced we don't

24:36

have a video on the B2 Spirit but our

24:38

friends over at mustard do and it's

24:41

available exclusively on nebula the

24:43

20-minute video is beautifully animated

24:46

and tells the story of how the B2 came

24:48

into existence before I go into an

24:51

entire spiel about how great nebula is I

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know many of you are sick of signing up

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for yet another subscription service so

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if you simply want to support our

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buy once and never pay again this helps

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fund original programming like our

25:16

five-part Battle of Britain Series where

25:18

we recreated the Central Command room of

25:21

the Battle of Britain to show you in

25:23

intricate detail how Britain won their

25:25

most impactful Victory we show you how

25:27

incoming raids were plotted on the huge

25:29

Central map with colorcoded tiles and

25:32

how the commander kept track of what

25:34

squadrons were available using a light

25:36

up board mounted on the walls we spent

25:38

over a month recreating this room using

25:41

archived footage and photos for

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reference and investment of time for a

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single animation asset that we simply

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can't afford on YouTube for less than

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you can get access to all of nebula's

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Originals along with their entire

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catalog without any ads you can also

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easily download videos to watch on the

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go for just 250 a month this channel

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depends on the funding nebula provides

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us if you've been subscribed to this

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channel for more than 3 years you've

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seen the huge increases in production

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quality that nebula has facilitated

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growing from 2D animations that myself

26:17

and Mike thought ourselves how to do to

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having a full team of incredibly

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talented 3D artists that rival any TV

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production this is expensive work and we

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would love to grow our team even more

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something we can only do with your

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support as YouTube ad Revenue simply

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does not cover the bills last year we

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actually made a small Financial loss for

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3 months in a row YouTube is simply a

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volatile platform where we depend on the

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whims of advertisers nebula is a life

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raft in a volatile sea of social media

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this is a common theme across YouTube

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creators we created nebula to enable and

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level up our entire roster of creators

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to remove the Financial uncertainty that

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forces us to rush projects to remove the

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algorithms that Force us to analyze data

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points instead of what really matters

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the audience on the other side of the

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screen so if you want to check out all

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of the fascinating exclusive content on

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nebula go to nebula.com

27:28

what